Sheng-cai Lin: Tip60-mediated lipin 1 acetylation and ER translocation determine triacylglycerol synthesis rate
Abstract: Obesity is characterized by excessive fatty acid conversion to triacylglycerols (TAGs) in adipose tissues. However, how signaling networks sense fatty acids and connect to the stimulation of lipid synthesis remains elusive. Here, we show that homozygous knock-in mice carrying a point mutation at the Ser86 phosphorylation site of acetyltransferase Tip60 (Tip60SA/SA) display remarkably reduced body fat mass, and Tip60SA/SA females fail to nurture pups to adulthood due to severely reduced milk TAGs. Mechanistically, fatty acids stimulate Tip60-dependent acetylation and endoplasmic reticulum translocation of phosphatidic acid phosphatase lipin 1 to generate diacylglycerol for TAG synthesis, which is repressed by deacetylase Sirt1. Inhibition of Tip60 activity strongly blocks fatty acid-induced TAG synthesis while Sirt1 suppression leads to increased adiposity. Genetic analysis of loss-of-function mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a requirement of ESA1, yeast ortholog of Tip60, in TAG accumulation. These findings uncover a conserved mechanism linking fatty acid sensing to fat synthesis.